Plan and Programs

For our final presentation boards, Rose and I worked together to create an overall plan that included our main programs and divided them into the categories they were most focused on improving, relating to our mission. 

Throughout this project we have made many iterations of our mission, program lists, and attempted to divide our programs into categories on multiple occasions. Every iteration we have done in the past has been too confused and not concise. This final version we created combined the best aspects of all of our previous iterations in a concise, well-organized fashion. We included less words and better visual connections for the audience to follow.

We condensed the description of each program, organized them by color following one color scheme, and them divided the three main objectives, wellness, education, and community, amongst the programs to wherever they were most applicable.

 

These next two boards are a more concise, visually appealing representation of the community garden design guideline.

Section Cut Development

I used all of my previous section cut study sketches and drawings in order to decide on the most informational section cuts. I decided to cut through my site looking from the play space at the yoga studio from the parking lot to the hydroponics building and through my site and neighboring areas looking from the parking lot. In my opinion, these views provided the most information and created an experience. 

The first two images are the view looking at the yoga studio. I cut the section in sketchup and then rendered it with the clay setting so that it would resemble the initial stages of my perspective view and create an unobtrusive background to the life happening in front of it. I decided on one accent color for each section that ended up being too intense, overpowering the image, and overall being unnecessary. So I eventually cut the color out all together and played around with adding Photoshop trees and people throughout the site.

This next section cut is the view from the parking lot that include parts of each site that neighbors mine. I made the same simple mistakes in this one as well.

As we were discussing all of our section cuts as a group, Rose and I discovered two of our section cuts were of the exact same space and our other sections cuts looked at views we already addressed in our perspective images. For those reasons, we decided to condense our less effective section cuts into one detailed, informational section cut. Our hope is that by combining our ideas, efforts, and styles, we could capture a more accurate depiction of what's happening in the site and how the areas relate without providing redundant information. 

This next image is the final section cut view we decided on that gave the most possible information. 

After deciding on the section cut, we brought it back into sketchup and edited it to just be a simple line drawing. Then, we brought it into sketchup and added plants, people, and textures when necessary. Next, we added a picture I had taken at the site into the background to ground the design into it's existing surroundings and added labels for clarity.

Perspective Development

After completing my sketchup model, I went through many stages to develop a successful perspective that fully encapsulated the spirit of the site. I began by moving to eye level view and walking around my site until I found a spot that had every aspect I wanted to include. The below image is the scene I chose that includes the community garden, people relaxing in the courtyard, the yoga studio, the overhead trellis, and just a glimpse into the site on the other side of the studio. The most important aspect of a perspective image is to show people and how they will interact in the site. I began by rendering the sketchup model in a clay mode to show the shadows and simple, gray surfaces, I then began adding textures, plants, and people. This was my first attempt at a digital rendering and it was definitely a learning experience.

After the first iteration I learned about adding filters, shadows, and other details to help bring the site to life. I was extremely excited about adding those elements but first I had to go back in and add the interior of my yoga studio to make it more dynamic and informational. I began by rendering the entire scene again but on a lighter setting without the garage door and windows. Then, I copied the background of my old scene and removed the yoga studio from the new image. Next, I cropped out just the yoga studio from the second rendering and placed it into the new scene. After that, I started the fun part and filled the studio with people, plants, and life. The idea is that even after I added the garage, windows, and the rest of the scene over this image, there would still be a hint of what was going on behind the doors.

This last image is a copy of my final perspective rendering. I changed the people, added more textures, added flooring, added a close up hand to create a first person perspective, and most importantly added filters. I experimented with multiple different filters and different settings but this one was overall my favorite, because when it's printed out it gives the scene a warm feeling and a dynamic quality that makes everything seem cohesive and exciting.

World Food Issues: Aid organization Report

 

Stop Hunger Now India

            Stop Hunger Now India is a non-profit organization that has been focused on providing aid to poverty in India in the form of education and meal packs intended to deliver then healthy foods rich in necessary vitamins and minerals and provide them with resources and opportunities to break the cycle of poverty. So far they have packed 1,049,888 meals in India full of rice, dal dehydrated vegetables, and a vitamin sachet that includes 23 essential vitamins and minerals (Stop Hunger Now India). The overall mission of Stop Hunger Now is to end hunger in our lifetime and provide aid to the world’s most vulnerable countries by mobilizing resources around the world to actually make an impact by saving lives and positively influencing poverty rates (Stop Hunger Now India).

            The meals provided by Stop Hunger Now are designed for malnourished people with a focus on women and children (Stop Hunger Now India). This is the largest demographic of people is influenced anemia and underweight malnourishment. Anemia is one of the most prevalent issues in India’s public health influencing high amounts of pregnant women and young girls (Toteja, 2006). A survey showed that about 89% of pregnant women and 60% of adolescent girls suffer from anemia but do not receive any care or assistance (Toteja, 2006). This fact alone represents the positive impact Stop Hunger Now is having on India just by acknowledging problems that have been ignored for so long. Women are ignored and treated unequally so often in developing nations and receive less attention, food, and rights. Stop Hunger Now realizes these women and children need assistance and have put in place action that isn’t expensive and has a tangible effect on the livelihood of India’s people.

            The other main focus of the organization is to put focus on educational systems. They put emphasis on providing hot meals to schools and working with school feeding programs because it gives parents the incentive to keep sending their children to school (Stop Hunger Now India), which then increases their education, knowledge of nutrition, and helps them break the cycle of poverty. By learning new skills and getting prepared to enter the workforce and India’s economy they help propel themselves forward and break the chain of poverty that is so hard to escape. It can be almost impossible to break the cycle of poverty because children’s brains are physically changed in a negative way due to exposure to poverty (Jensen, 2009). Poverty also provides social and emotional challenges and health and safety issue (Jensen, 2009). By moving out of extreme poverty and getting an education they also promote change in other areas of society like childhood morality, gender equality, ad fighting HIV/ AIDS (Stop Hunger Now India). By providing healthy meals to schools, Stop Hunger Now India is helping India improve its health, lower poverty and hunger rates, and so much more.

            Their influence in improving health and promoting education leads to more kids moving on to secondary education which important to economic growth, reduction of poverty, and improving infant mortality (Tilak, 2007). In India, higher education has been ignored by the government and not figured into poverty reduction agenda (Tilak, 2007). However, Stop Hunger Now’s initiative has helped improve its standings and India’s livelihood in multiple ways.

            Stop Hunger Now India is focused on saving lives, ending hunger, and taking action. They are making an actual impact on the country and it’s poverty and hunger rates, which in turn affects education, economy, and equality. India is a nation who has gone through serious hardships and has been taken advantage of by other, wealthier countries, which is not morally acceptable. However, the actions taken by Stop Hunger Now are completely morally acceptable and beneficial in every way. They are taking a beneficence stand to actually reach out and do good things to help others. They are not standing back and watching bad things happen, they are actively pursuing justice and attempting to give everyone in poverty a fair chance and the rights to everything they deserve. The Rights Theory states all people have protected privileges of life, freedom, and to not be tortured and that’s exactly what this organization is trying to give the people of India. Stop Hunger Now is following the Utilitarianism Theory and seeking the greatest good for the greatest number of people to distribute wealth and optimize happiness. Overall, this organization is using effective practices to help India in as many ways as possible and help dig them out of poverty and hunger.

 

Works Cited

Jensen, Eric. Teaching with Poverty in Mind: What Being Poor Does to Kids' Brains and What Schools Can Do about It. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2009. Print.

"Stop Hunger Now India | Together We Can End Hunger." Stop Hunger Now India Front Page Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Dec. 2015. <http://intl.stophungernow.org/in/>.

Tilak, Jandhyala B.g. "Post-elementary Education, Poverty and Development in India." International Journal of Educational Development 27.4 (2007): 435-45. Web.

Toteja, G. S., Padam Singh, B. S. Dhillon, B. N. Saxena, F. U. Ahmed, R. P. Singh, Balendu Prakash, K. Vijayaraghavan, Y. Singh, A. Rauf, U. C. Sarma, Sanjay Gandhi, Lalita Behl, Krishna Mukherjee, S. S. Swami, Viu Meru, Prakash Chandra, Chandrawati, and Uday Mohan. "Prevalence of Anemia among Pregnant Women and Adolescent Girls in 16 Districts of India." Food Nutr Bull Food and Nutrition Bulletin 27.4 (2006): 311-15. Web.

 

Moving Forward

As I continue moving forward and finalizing design moves, my changes and tweaks become more subtle but equally as beneficial.

This current iteration isn't drastically different from the previous version, but it's cleaned up and easier to understand. I did however make a few changes, I extended the yoga indoor/outdoor flooring pattern all the way through to the sight next to me to continue the solid plane and move with consistency throughout the site. I also moved the teaching gardens to the top left corner by the stage. On average a class coming to the site or a nutritional class held at the site will have about 26 students and 2 teachers. If about 4 people can garden at each planting bed, about 7 garden beds would accommodate an entire class. In order to appeal to larger group possibilities and to follow the current grid, I extended that number to 9 garden beds placed closer together than the rest of the grid. My hope is that this creates a more intimate, quiet space suitable for teaching and learning. I also placed it close to the stage so that a class could possibly extend there if necessary or some form of nutritional and exercise health classes could work together with the garden, nutrition classes. I kept the rest of the garden plots where they were because I like the continuous flow of courtyard spaces they create. Having the courtyards flow together eliminates awkward movements and hard edges. 

Another slight change I made was extending the sycamore trees into the parking lot to provide shade and comfort. I also moved the parking spaces so that the walkway within the site lines up with a tree and a median instead of a parking space and moving cars. The site is subtly different and I am happy with the impact of these changes.

I drew this next sketch to experience the area for myself and determine the best place to highlight as a perspective with my final renderings. I decided on this location because it showcases the continuous flow through to other sites, the action and life within this site, and the captivating elements it holds. As I continue my process this perspective will become more finalized and clear but this version was necessary in my personal understanding and design critiques.

Ergonomics Study

The main entity of my "heart rate" section of the design relies heavily on the success of the Community garden. It determines the flow of the site, the circulation, community interaction, and essentially brings the site to life. My site is intended to strengthen community bonds, get people excited about being outside, working together, and getting healthy by raising their heart rates and getting active.

In order to create a successful space it has to work well with the human form. People avoid awkward spaces so it is a designer’s job to make sure people feel comfortable wherever they are. I began this study by determining the main demographics intended to use this space and decided on families from the community and school classes. That means the size of these garden spaces must work for adults and children and have enough variety to be different and exciting.

A drew a series of studied imagining the height of the planter and how it relates to the persons arm span and height and whether they’re standing or kneeling. These studies led to me determining the three must efficient heights would be 3', 1.5', and 1'. These heights accommodate all different sizes of people for different occasions. Children will be able to stand upright at a 1.5' planter box and adults will be able to kneel comfortable at that height. Children will be able to easily kneel at the 1' height and plant herbs and small plants, while adults can completely sit down and still feel comfortable.

Varying the heights in this fashion in the best way to accommodate everyone and create an exciting space.

 

After determining the correct height of the planters, it was essential to study how people would move around them if other community members were using the garden bed. A did a similar sketch analysis and used the size of my body and bodies of my peers to reach a conclusion. On average, when a person is kneeling down their legs extend behind them about 1 foot. This means, if people were kneeling at each garden bed and people wanted to walk through that space, there would need to be at least 2 additional feet extended to the walkway in order to accommodate the gardeners and the walkers. For that reason, I extended to previously 4' walkways to 6' walkways between the planting beds to accommodate people and their real life usage of the space.

World Food Issues: Green Revolution Simulation Analysis

 

Bihari Farmer Simulation Analysis

Green Revolution Report

I was able to successfully keep my simulated family alive for 14 years of the program before they all died of horrific and entirely preventable causes. I was initially proud of keeping them alive longer than 10 years until I realized how horrendous and morally wrong it is that people in our world today are living under such harsh restrictions and such brutal realities. It was extremely hard to make any type of a profit or invest any money in better farming equipment because of how hard the economic conditions are. It seemed like whenever I would start to make a profit, have a higher crop yield, or be successful in any way, the prices would rise and I would be stuck in my current position, unable to achieve any success or move up in society. It is completely unethical and morally appalling that third world countries are forced to suffer under these conditions imposed upon them by wealthy nations that reap the benefits from their work. It continuously shocks me how poor the conditions are in developing nations, but the simulation surprised me the most by the negative farming outcomes associated with civil war and political strife, crop diseases (human health, basic necessities), and dry seasons.

Throughout the news, I see headlines about civil wars and rebel soldiers torturing women and destroying villages, but I never realized their negative impact on crop yields and how prevalent they are in today’s society. In order for a nation to feel stable, they must have a secure government that they feel like they are a part of. In most developing nations, citizens don’t have faith in their government officials or government processes and civil wars and rebel crimes breakout that are disastrous for the entire civilization. During the simulation, my family was threatened by armed; rebel forces and a large portion of their crops were stolen. It is wrong for so many people in developing nations to feel so helpless in their own homes. They have no control of their government or their own livelihood and that is not morally acceptable. The ethical theory of rights and the utilitarian theory show that everyone is entitled to the same basic human rights, like water, shelter, food, and the ability to be self-sufficient, and these rebel forces are making that impossible and stripping them of their rights. The utilitarian theory says that choices should be made in order to appeal to the greatest amount of people. In this case, the farmers and all innocent civilians of developing nations are the greater good, but they are being controlled by the small rebel groups and powerful government officials that do not have the best interest of the greater population in mind. The loss of food production is heightened when exposed to conflict because the opportunities for recruitment are higher and social injustices are common (Buhaug, Wischnath, 2014). With India’s history being studied as a precedent, we see that political violence is related to harvest loss and impacts the economy in a severely negative way (Buhaug, Wischnath, 2014). Overall, political conflict and civil war issues not only make it challenging for families to survive and flourish, but they made it impossible for the country to thrive as a whole. A country will only flourish if it is unified and internal conflict eliminates that possibility completely.

The next large issue I was faced with in the simulation was crop disease and it’s negative impact on the economic status of the family farm and well as the health of the family members. For example, the potato crop already has more than 50 known viruses and they continue to grow, especially in warm, developing nations (Jones, 2014) people are most dependent on successful crop yields for survival. The Green Revolution supplied developing nations with crops that grow successfully, however they changed the entire structure of their society to rely on that one particular food. In some cases, they turned a food-insecure, developing nation that was rich in biodiversity but not in high crop yields into a society that relies only on one specific crop. This is great when that crop is flourishing and successful, but what if that crop gets a disease, they are in huge trouble. If a country relies on one crop and that crop produces no yield because of a disease, they have nothing to fall back on and make no profits. They have no way of providing food for their families with no crops or money to import goods and they then rely even more heavily on wealthier nations. This method of culture is not acceptable as a solution to hunger because it is not healthy for the people, their economies, or the future. The utilitarian theory is providing for the greater good and that is the opposite of what wealthy nations are doing. Wealthy nations are forcing developing nations to be even more reliant and even less self-sufficient and it is resulting in malnourished civilizations that result in death and war.

Another way wealthy nations are taking advantage of the developing nations in an unjust way is with water dependency and scarcity. In the simulation, my family suffered through times of dry seasons where they would make virtually no crop yield. This too ties back to the Green Revolution because countries are forced to irrigate crops more often because they are not native to that area. This results in depleted water sources; water sources contaminated by the pesticides the crops rely on, and increased dependency on wealthy nations. These wealthy nations are hiding under the façade of creating self-sufficient nations, but they result in being even more necessary to developing nations because they are needed for pesticides, water, and irrigation methods whenever there is a dry season or natural disaster. These issues are especially prevalent in India’s past, when they developed new irrigation methods to grow their new genetically modified crops (Frankel, 1971) and then had to pay for the negative repercussions. The new modified wheat that India began to grow was only successful if it had assured supplies of water (Frankel, 1971). This lead to small farms being unable to handle the economic demands and the high-yielding crops were pushed towards big farms that had the necessary equipment and access to water (Frankel, 1971). In this specific instance, the only people benefiting are people who already had access to large farm equipment and capabilities. For this reason, many small farmers continue to suffer and die, just like in the simulation.

Overall, wealthy nations attempted to help developing nations by providing crops with high yields in order to feed the hungry. This was extremely beneficial at first but had very negative responses in the long run and made countries even more reliant on wealthy nations and their technological advancements. There are high rates of mortality and civil war when developing nations suffer blows to their crop yields like disease or lack of water and it also negatively effects their economy and stops them from ever improving their status. All of these negative occurrences also rest on the moral implications of wealthy nations making profit off of the crops produced in developing nations when their society is crumbling and their people are dying.

 

 

Works Cited

Frankel, Francine R. India's Green Revolution; Economic Gains and Political Costs. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1971. Print.

Jones, R. A. C. "Virus Disease Problems Facing Potato Industries Worldwide: Viruses Found, Climate Change Implications, Rationalizing Virus Strain Nomenclature, and Addressing the Potato Virus Y Issue." The Potato: Botany, Production and Uses (2014): 202-24. Web.

Wischnath, Gerdis, and Halvard Buhaug. "Rice or Riots: On Food Production and Conflict Severity across India." Political Geography 43 (2014): 6-15. Web.

 

World Food Issues: Movie Report

Hotel Rwanda

I watched the movie Hotel Rwanda, which followed a man as he bravely saved the lives of over a thousand people during the Rwandan Genocide. The genocide started when the Hutu rebels murdered the president and then began slaughtering the Tutsi people and anyone who got in their way. This was a vicious, horrific even that left over a million people dead and even more displaced. The events covered in this film highlight the realities of war and the brutality and all encompassing impact of genocide. These events altered the political and economic power during and after the genocide and changed the lives of millions of people especially due to the horrific treatment of women. This brutality and despair in the film make it very challenging to watch, but it highlights historic events that can’t be ignored.

The political and economic power in Rwanda was altered immediately. The genocide began when the Hutu rebels murdered the president of Rwanda and rendered the government completely powerless. The Hutu rebels took over all power and took the rights away from everyone. They took people’s land, killed their families, burned their hopes and took away all avenues to make money or prosper in any way. During the genocide, money lost all value. The film shows the only way to get help was to bargain supplies, and as the genocide continued supplies, like food and water, quickly disappeared. This illustrated how food can be used as a tool in warfare. During conflict, food is of the upmost importance; it decides who survives (Macrae, Zwi, 1992). In the film, one of the biggest challenges of the refugees was obtaining food and water and sustaining it long enough to survive. The Hutu rebels took away the food supply of all of the refugees and shut off their water, attempting to starve them out and force them to leave the hotel where they would be murdered. In many historical cases food is used as a weapon of war by either omission or commission and contributes to further famine and hardships (Macrae, Zwi, 1992). The influence of these resources can be so powerful it impacts the economic and environmental decline, and encourages political uncertainty and ethnic rivalry (Macrae, Zwi, 1992). This film highlights exactly how food and resources can be used strategically.

The political and economic changes in power did not end when the genocide was over. The very structure of the Rwandans way of life was forever changed. The Rwandan genocide so horrific because it was within a close-knit civilization, neighbors killing neighbors, families being torn apart, life forever changing (Prunier, 2009).  This disconnect within the society made changed all forms of political and economic power. People began using their personal survival of the genocide to their advantage and would accuse people of having been involved with the rebels for their own personal profit and economic gain (Prunier, 2009).

Every part of this historic event is morally wrong. The Hutu rebels stripped these people of every right they had. They tortured them, took away all of their possessions, and murdered them for no reason but control. They took the paternalism principle and decided the fate of over a million people. Everything these rebels did is undeniably horrible, but I am also shocked by the lack of help they received. I think it is morally wrong that no one came to their aid. All of these wealthy nations watched the horrific acts that took place and did nothing to help. Utilitarianism is the idea of helping the greater good, but all of these countries sack back and helped no one but themselves. The film highlights how race was a key factor in people ignoring their desperate need for help, but whatever the reason, it is unjustifiable.

All of these people were stripped of their rights and livelihood, but no one suffered worse than women. Women were shown in the film being brutally beaten and raped. Tragically, these events are common in warfare. Women are raped, forced into military brothels, and forced into sex trafficking (Hynes, 2004). The women impacted by these appalling acts are then more susceptible to poverty, prostitution, and coercion of sex for food by post-war peacekeepers (Hynes, 2004). They also are more likely to suffer from illness and death after the conflict (Hynes, 2004). This is evident in the Rwandan Genocide post-conflict especially because women who were pregnant from rape by Hutu killers were unable to get abortions because of the poor medical and economic conditions of the post war civilization (Macrae, Zwi, 1992). Everyone suffers after cruel acts of war, but women suffer the most.

My reaction to this film was intense. I am extremely horrified and disgusted by the acts of the Rwandan genocide but I firmly believe everyone must hear about it. Information if our biggest tool in prevention and developing solutions to conflicts stemming from this. The Rwandan genocide worked as a catalyst to more issues in the African Congo and other areas (Macrae, Zwi, 1992). The Rwandan genocide was a product and a cause of African crisis (Macrae, Zwi, 1992). The issues and pain caused from these events are not over and cannot be ignored. Millions of people suffered and are still suffering and they urgently need help from developed, wealthy nations.

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Hotel Rwanda: A True Story. MGM Home Entertainment, 2004. DVD.

Hynes, H. Patricia. "On the Battlefield of Women's Bodies: An Overview of the Harm of War to Women." Women's Studies International Forum 27.5-6 (2004): 431-45. Web.

Macrae, Joanna, and Anthony B. Zwi. "Food as an Instrument of War in Contemporary African Famines: A Review of the Evidence." Disasters 16.4 (1992): 299-321. Web.

Prunier, Gérard. Africa's World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2009. Print.

 

World Food Issues: Historical Origins of Poverty

 

Historical Origins of Poverty Report: India

 India itself is a fairly new country. It gained its independence from the British Empire in 1947 after violent acts, riots, and many deaths. The country essentially had to start over from scratch by creating a new political and economic system. This young country is surrounded by well-established wealthy nations and has history of political strife all contributing to its high levels of poverty and hunger. India has a large, expanding, mostly rural population, an extremely low per-capita income, limited financial resources, and low levels of literacy, education, and life expectancy (Hardgrave, Kochanek, 2008). All of these factors, although slowly improving, contribute to its status as a developing nation.   India’s recent independence, poor economics, and gender inequality all contribute to it being a developing nation.

After World War II, when India had gained its independence and working on improving rates of poverty, economic stagnation, and create a new political order, other countries at the same time, like Japan and the United States, were much farther ahead in those fields but dealing with similar issues as they were faced with diminishing resources and rising expectations (Hardgrave, Kochanek, 2008).  India was already up against countries that had been working on their independence for far longer. With more time comes more opportunities and more lessons from failures. India didn’t have time to make the same mistakes and develop at the same pace, because surrounding countries were already much farther along. Although India is a developing nation, it is full of useful resources and alluring qualities. For example, India’s geo-strategic location and large size (Hardgrave, Kochanek, 2008) make it extremely sought after land, especially in the realm of developing nations. India isn’t following any set stages as it transitions from traditional to modern, and for that reason is becoming an interesting study for the process of development itself (Hardgrave, Kochanek, 2008). A large reason while poverty is so prevalent in India and why they suffer from such high rates of hunger is it’s economy and poor distribution of wealth.

India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world, but its wealth is barely distributed throughout the population (Effects of poverty in India, 2013). About 70% of India’s population lives in rural areas, and these areas have the highest rates of poverty(Effects of poverty in India, 2013). A country does not have wealth unless every citizen benefits from it. I believe that this inequality of wealth is unethical because of the utilitarianism theory. This theory states that it is only morally acceptable to seek the greatest good for the greatest amount of people and that is not what this government and this economy is doing. They spend only 1% of its GDP on health (Effects of poverty in India, 2013) when an overwhelming portion of its population is suffering from hunger and malnutrition. The countries failure to succeed and lower its poverty rates is due to the government’s lack of focus toward health care, education, and social security (Drese, Sen 1999). The people within a society are what make its economy and government successful and when the people don’t have proper, ethical treatment, the society will fail. It has also been proven that increasing income in poor countries will in turn improve nutrition. (Behrman, Deolalikar, 1987). A country as large and as lush as India should not be suffering from such high rates of poverty and hunger. The money and resources are there, they just need to be put towards the right things.

India’s economy not only needs to invest in health programs, but also small farms and agriculture. Another large reason why India is a developing country and why millions of its citizens are malnourished is that they can’t afford food. The countries economy is so focused on keeping up with the world’s top economic countries; it can’t be bothered to feed its own population (Chamberlain, 2010). Children are the most influential demographic in any society and they are forced to deal with this the most. They suffer from malnutrition and starvation and every aspect of their health and development is negatively impacted. Due to these high rates of malnutrition in children, the death rate is high and negatively impacts the every aspect of the country and it’s civilization.

Along with children malnutrition and underdevelopment comes poor education and inequality of genders. Women in India face severe discrimination throughout their entire lives. It begins as infant, because families prefer boys many girls are aborted every year and those who survive are treated horribly (Challenges of Being a Woman in India). Girls are given less food, less education, and their only focus is to become someone’s wife on the future (Challenges of Being a Woman in India). Dowries are very common and a huge financial burden, which in turn causes men and families to treat women like a financial burden. Women are married off when they are very young and always live in fear of violence and rape (Challenges of Being a Woman in India). Their cries for help are ignored and there is no justice in this society. In order for the country to move out poverty and become a developed, flourishing nation, all citizens of all genders must be treated equally. Every human being has the ethical rights to life, freedom, and to not be tortured. The women in Indian culture have been stripped of their rights and it is morally wrong. There will never be justice or peace in this country if women continue to be treated in such horrible way.

India has made it through very tough times in their history. They have suffered through riots, wars, crop failures, drought, and have started over after their independence. India is blessed with great cropland, large size, and great geographic location, but they are still considered a developing nation because of their inadequate distribution of wealth, harsh competition, and unequal gender treatment. India began developing in a world full of highly industrialized countries in a modernized world. As a whole they have fought against adversary and strife but they have a long way to go before their citizens are treated fairly and before their poverty and hunger rates drop.

 

 

Works Cited

Behrman, Jere R., and Anil B. Deolalikar. "Will Developing Country Nutrition Improve with Income? A Case Study for Rural South India." Journal of Political Economy J POLIT ECON 95.3 (1987): 492. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.

"Challenges of Being a Woman in India - CNN.com." CNN. Cable News Network, n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2015. <http://www.cnn.com/2013/01/12/world/asia/india-women-challenge/>.

Chamberlain, Gethin. "Hunger in India: 'The Real Cause Is Lack of Political Will'" The Guardian (2010): n. pag. Www.theguardian.com. Web. 12 Nov. 2015. <http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2010/sep/14/hunger-india-actionaid>.

Dreze, Jean, and Amartya Sen. "India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity." Oxford University Press OUP Catalogue (1999): n. pag. Web. 11 Nov. 2015. <https://ideas.repec.org/b/oxp/obooks/9780198295280.html>.

Kochanek, Stanley A., Jr., and Robert L. Hardgrave. India: Government and Politics in a Developing Nation. 7th ed. N.p.: Thomson Learning, 2008. Print.

"Poverty in India: Causes, Effects, Injustice & Exclusion." Poverties.org. N.p., July 2011. Web. 13 Nov. 2015. <http://www.poverties.org/poverty-in-india.html>.

 

Continued Process Development

The Design process continues with an updated underlay, new ideas, and slight adjustments that provide a fresh outlook on the same core mission. 

This first image represents the updated underlay. The changes are subtle, but make a large impact. The biggest difference is the placement and size of the yoga studio that exists as a core element of my design area and greatly impacts the community growth and health of the body and mind. As a group we decided to rotate the building and extend its length to fit the entire span of the area reaching the walkways on either side.

After the changes were made to the underlay, I began designing the heart of the site and giving it life. I continued with the idea of indoor - outdoor flooring pattern that extends the usage and size of the yoga studio by creating a consistent flow of flooring materials. I then drew a grid for my garden plots in the community garden area. At this point, the garden plots were 3 ft. by 5 ft. with 3 ft. walking space between them. I began placing them throughout the site, following the grid, and leaving room for open space designed for sitting and eating within the garden plots and also room for teaching opportunities.

After determining these garden plot locations and open spaces, the left over space conveniently created a triangular shape perfect for the open playground space. My goal is to leave this space mostly open for kids to freely run around and exercise in a safe location, but I also placed some play equipment like swings and a climbing structure for kids to enjoy. I kept the flooring concrete consistent through my entire site except for this play area. In this area I changed the flooring to rubber material that’s safe for kids to play around on and squishy under their feet. I played around with different designs for this material to keep it fun and exciting.

Another interesting aspect of this play area is that it’s sunken into the ground by means of two concrete stairs. This design was intended to create a feeling of safety and enclosure for the kids and families while simultaneously providing benches for adults to sit on. The main critique I received on this design move is that I forgot to accommodate ADA requirements and made an area inaccessible for handicap people. For those reasons and more, the sunken playground design changed quickly after this design iteration.

My next step was to follow our groups plant list and place trees throughout my site that provided natural shade in some areas like the courtyard spaces around the garden plots, without producing too heavy of an overhead cover that blocked sunlight from the garden plots. I also placed trees around the outdoor yoga floor in order to create a permeable border that makes the space feel enclosed and safe without blocking it off from its surroundings completely. I placed the largest sycamore tree cover around the playground in order to create a natural overhead cover to protect kids and adults from the full force of the sun but still keeping them outside.

The following series of 3 images represent the next step in my design process of changing the grid. My goal was to accommodate a wider change of people by expanding the walkway between the garden plots that allows for more people to pass by and creates more room for people kneeling down to garden and experience the area.

After updating the grid I placed garden plots around the space and indicated the space of the planter and the 1-foot distance around the planter intended for people to use and still have space to walk around them.

Next, I indicated where the overhead trellis would be and indicated where the opening spaces would be located and their intended use. 

This last image represents the most updated version of my design. I included the interior design of the yoga studio that as remained consistent from its previous version. I simplified the exterior wooden flooring and gave it a defined edge to help define the space. A major change I made was to change the flooring of the entire community garden space to a more firm version of the rubber play floor in order to create a versatile, engaging look to the space while also providing a more comfortable flooring alternative to concrete for people to kneel on when they garden. I did however keep the same concrete flooring on the walkways around the garden area and between the garden space and the play area in order to create consistency.

I also listened to my previous critiques and raised my play space to be consistent with the level of the garden space. I simplified to play space design and took out the play equipment and made a series of multi-colored rubber material dips into the floor to create the same safe feeling with a captivating floor material that's safe and easy to play on.

My design still has a long way to go but my steady flow of critiques and alterations has created a series of designs that show my process and subtle design improvements. All of these iterations have begun to create a dialogue of design I am excited to continue developing.

Working Critiques

Developing further on the ideas of unifying our space and creating an identity as people move through the site, led to this iteration of my design. As a group, we began by deciding on a floor plan design that mimicked a droplet of water extending through the entire site, radiating out of the center. We also decided to use the existing pillars, strip off their current brick facade, and build a trellis that covers the entire site. The goal is that these two elements unify the site even though the character within each area varies with materials, programs, and overall feel.

This first image represents the underlay of the site map focusing on my area of the site. It has the parking lot and the yoga studio to place it in the area but also has the poles for the trellis and the marks of the flooring represented on it as well. 

Next, I experimented with different, experiential circulation routes that connect to the amphitheater and museum site that neighbors mine. My goal was to create broad sweeping curves that unified the area and created a circulation route that felt curvaceous and natural while weaving people through the yoga studio, garden plots, and playgrounds. I also intended these curvaceous routes to bring people around the entire area and loop them back through it in the opposite direction. One critique I received previously said that it's a good idea to have people end their journey in the playground but force them to exit back through the commercial market so they buy food and goods after they are tired from playing and physical activity.

After that, I did a more finalized version over that where I cleaned up the edges and finalized the shape and size of the garden plots and tables. This plan drawing gave me a better idea of what the experience would actually be like and proves to be a little awkward. Without the circulation lines directing people through the curvaceous routes the plot design and overall placement of programs seems awkward. I'm glad I experimented with this different movement and broke up the harsh lines because it's essential to attempt and try every design and movement to see what will be most successful. This stage of iterations also showed us that our flooring pattern is unnecessary and needs to be refined. We plan on keeping the idea of a unified flooring plan but we need to create a material that has less of a conceptual idea and is based more on actual usage.

While elaborating on my program and design ideas, I drew this perspective view to get a better idea of what the actual experience inside of the studio would feel like. This drawing showed me that I really like the garage door idea and how effective it is at creating an opening and breaches the gap between indoor and outdoor spaces seamlessly. I also like the wooden floor panels continuing outside because it creates a continuous flow to the outside and extend the space and its usage. This drawing also showed me that the glass wall on the side isn't necessary and would probably be more useful as a mirror wall to make the studio more effective. I also learned I don't need such an elaborate fencing outside and it would be much more cost effective to use a simple chain link design and allow the community to add art to it and build an identity and connection to the area. It was fun to add plantings and people and really give the design life. It makes me excited to continue designing and produce more iterations that continuously improve the experience.

Updated Mission: Food Ark

After our trip to Las Vegas and multiple desk critiques, our group began to reevaluate our mission. We shifted from focusing on reaching out to local schools and bringing food to them, to instead bringing these people to our site. We aim to create a destination for families and kids where they can feel safe in an exciting, educational environment. We will still have the same basic programs but they will be more focused on the identity of the sight. Our mission is to strengthen the community by creating a safe environment for physical and mental health, education, fresh food, and local commerce.

Our mission and design intent develops, so does our group method of design. For this iteration we divided the site into sections based on the overall intent or activity. My site was the community health site and focused around a yoga studio with indoor-outdoor capabilities, community garden plots, and a playground for children and families. This 30-scale plan accentuates the intended circulation routes from the parking lot and other areas of the site. The yoga studio is based on the same height as the surrounding buildings and is intended to improve the community by bringing them together and improving their physical health. It's also intended to get them outside and breathing fresh air, surrounded by the community garden plots. People feel happier and healthier when they work with and around plants and that's the idea behind placing the yoga studio and the playground within the garden plots. Hopefully the community builds and identity with the garden plots and feel connected to the site, each other, and overall the city as a whole.

After a review from James Spiller, we realized our sections were very displaced from each other. Even though we designed them as a group with broad overall design intent, we have to sense of identity connecting them all together. He suggested creating a unified overhead plane and floor plane and creating a unique identity for the site as a whole. He also suggested passing our designs on to other group members and seeing what changes or suggestions they would make in order to create a design we all feel invested in that exemplifies all of our styles and ideas.

Along with the plan of my area of the site, I also drew two section cuts that highlight the movement from the parking lot through the area and the overall experience it creates. 

Lastly I drew a quick perspective view to help me understand the relationship between the garden plots and the yoga studio and help me create walkable distances that have enough room, but still feel connected to the entire experience.

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Nevada Green Schools Stem Summit

My Las Vegas experience was full of exciting firsts like watching street performers, walking through a casino (not gambling), and breathing in the desert air. My experience also included the Nevada Green School Stem Summit where I had the privilege to listen to skilled professionals speak about their experiences spreading the love of healthy food and nutrition to their communities and schools. 

Because of my previous research into surrounding educational programs, I was extremely excited to listen to Katie Decker from Green Our Planet Speak about her program. After the initial opening speakers finished, Katie Decker was the first speaker I listened to. I had looked into her program before when I was researching into building our network and it was exciting to hear what she had to say in person. She began her speech with the quote, "If you build it, it will grow." and I was already hooked. She began by revealing her simple steps of having a vision, getting support, having everybody help, and continuing to grow. The idea seems simple enough but when you see the work she put into developing the system as a whole, it is much more complicated but infinitely more successful. 

It was fascinating listening to her talk about the her experience as an extremely successful principal and the incredibly positive effect these school gardens had on her students, her programs, and the entire community surrounding the schools. She first elaborated on the idea of developing a vision and focusing on your main agenda. She discussed the benefits of hands of learning, learning healthy recipes, and overall engaging the entire community. She developed simple ideas like painting walls to make everyone feel like they are a part of the space to limit vandalism and becoming invested as an entire community. She also recycles everything and incorporates every little thing, like old tires and pipes that she has the kids and the community individualize and then hang as art within the gardens.  I learned a lot about the importance of labeling and specifying what's growing where and labeling the nutrition and purpose to keep the learning going and selling it with a specific intent. Her excitement for her schools and her projects made me extremely inspired for my own project.

Her speech led to me thinking how her school garden curriculum and set up could be developed and infused into a community gardens. It opens up the possibility for entire community involvement, businesses or families could sponsor garden beds or sponsor bricks and it would be an excellent way to make revenue. Another way to make revenue could be having local restaurants host events and have proceeds benefit the garden or even having certain menu items sales benefit the gardens, the possibilities are endless. We could also reach out and see what local businesses could donate to the area and see what kind of art we could make out of it. Any type of garden calms and area down and these community garden plots would soothe the overall atmosphere while also creating educational opportunities and community health for peoples minds and bodies by getting them outside doing something active. Listening to Katie speak about her journey and the lessons she's learned from her success and her failures really got me excited about creating a similar idea in my own design. 

The next speaker I listened to was Patrick Watson and Daniel Huard speak about water conservation and net zero landscape. They began with startling facts about the dropping water levels of Lake Mead and the importance to lower water usage and improve water-recycling programs. Next, they spoke about return flow credit and how more thank 95% of water used indoors is captured, treated, and reused, but most water used outdoors is lost. This led them into talking about how to conserve water and how to eliminate the dreaded loss of outdoor water with methods like water smart landscaping, which is slowing the water down, spreading it out, and soaking it in. And other methods like passive water harvesting, waterless urinals, and collecting water from roofs. All of these methods are simple processes that help the conservation of water exceptionally. They then concluded their speech with discussion on net zero landscapes and simple methods to make the landscape greener. For example, irrigation should be avoided, only plant native species, and only use artificial turf. They also discussed methods that could be incorporated into educational opportunities like using vacuum flush composting toilets that let people see how the system works and using native and adaptable plants as an educational opportunity. This lecture was extremely helpful in educating me on simple practices to create a greener sight with less of a negative ecological impact.

The next speaker to have a profound impact on me was Stephen Ritz. He gave an incredibly inspiring speech about his program, The Green Bronx Machine and the amazing impact it has on his students, the school, and the entire community. He inspired me to be more passionate about my ideas and put my whole heart into every design I make and develop. His positivity was infectious and I wanted to hear and learn more.

This desire to learn more was fulfilled when we all got to eat dinner with Stephen Ritz and many more professionals and learn about their journeys in their fields, ask questions about our projects, and brainstorm for the future. The environment was lively and enticing. It was so fun to hear these professionals speak in such a relaxed environment and hear their thoughts on my ideas and suggestions on how to move forward. I left the dinner feeling inspired to move forward with my project and ready to incorporate all of my new ideas.

 

What Happens in Vegas...

... helps us develop a food hub!

Traveling to Las Vegas, Nevada was an extremely exciting experience. I had never been to a desert environment and the dry, arid climate was new to me. It's incredible different to read and watch videos about conditions of a certain environment then it is to actually experience them with my own senses.

The first thing I noticed was the weather. I have been in dry climates before but nothing was as alarming as Las Vegas. The second I stepped foot out of the airport I could feel the hot air. However, this hot air was dry and had a much different effect on me than the humid heat I'm used to in Iowa. When it's hot in the mid west it’s hot everywhere. You're constantly being swaddled in a wet blanket of heat and it never goes away until you step foot into some quality air conditioning. The dry, desert heat of Las Vegas was definitely intense but it mellowed out if you stood in the shade for a few minutes and the temperature dropped incredible when the sun went down. These little differences in the weather don't seem that significant but they are enormously important to my design process. After experiencing the weather and feeling the little differences in climate, I understood the importance of shade and the slim likelihood of an affordable water feature. The tiniest things leave the biggest impact on a design.

I especially felt the heat when walking to our site location. The temperature was around 103 degrees Fahrenheit when my group and I took the 15-minute hike to our site. The sun was beating down on us and it felt like a 3-hour trek through the Sarah Desert with no water or shoes. That might be a slight exaggeration, but the heat took its toll. After rest in the shade for a few minutes we were able to wander around the site and photograph experience the space we had been looking at online for weeks in person with our own eyes. I was initially struck by how desolate it appeared and how abandoned it felt. As we wandered around more, however, we saw about 15 homeless people dispersed around the site and trash and everywhere. This site had transformed from a bus hub to a hub for homeless people and it was interesting to see how it had evolved. Walking though the site gave me a new perspective on the dimensions and a better idea of what elements of our design will actually fit in the area and succeed as they are intended. The heat was blustering and homeless people surrounded us but overall it was a great, useful experience.

 

Wandering around downtown Las Vegas, I also noticed the significance of scent. Each casino has it's own particular smell wafting out of it in hopes of enticing customers. It’s impossible to escape these smells, regardless if you like them or if you ever intend on gambling. I'm used to noticing bad smells in the city or good smells walking past a bakery or an open field, however I was new to experiencing highly processed smelled intended for a certain manufactured purpose. These smells are strong and intentional and even if it didn’t draw me in, it definitely left an impression. For example, the vanilla soaked cigarette infused cloud of hopelessness I smelled every time I walked through the lobby of the El Cortez will haunt me forever. And even though I choose to identify the smell of our hotel with harsh words and a negative association, one of my classmates might have loved for it and long for a time when they can smell it again. That's the interesting part of the experiencing a place with all of your senses, everyone reacts differently.

My Las Vegas cultural experience was a little different from my classmates because I was the only student who wasn't 21. This didn't seem like it would be a huge issue, but in a city centered on drinking, gambling, and entertainment it became a problem. Despite not being able to tour every casino and bar because I wasn't of age, occasionally I was denied access to a restaurant because of my age. I had assumed that most places in downtown Las Vegas would at least allow me to eat dinner but that wasn't the case at all. I was still able to site see and wander around the streets watching entertainers and talking to street vendors and it was an incredibly fun. Overall this experience showed me that there are not many places in downtown Las Vegas focused towards a younger audience or family friendly at all and definitely impacted my design focus. 

Wandering around Las Vegas, going to a cirque du soleil show, watching all the street vendors and entertainers, and immersing myself in the entire culture was an amazing experience. It was fascinating to see all of our analysis in person and fully experience a new culture completely different from everything I know. I ate at amazing restaurants, spoke to incredible people, and witnessed new lifestyles. All of these exciting things we saw and places we went changed my perspective of the city and shaped my overall design intent.

Ready for Vegas : Program Ideas

Before we made our trek to the grand state of Nevada for our journey to talk with professionals, expand our site knowledge, and experience the city of Las Vegas with our own senses, we published our mission and programs. 

Our main focus is on education and branching out to families and school children in the downtown Vegas community. Our group aim to build a network with existing programs in the Las Vegas. Prior to creating these boards I did research into educational and nutritional programs in the area including Green Our Planet, The Discovery Children's Museum, Three Square, and Cowboy Trails Farm. These organizations are already thriving and successful in the area. We want to work with them and build a strong network that makes our food hub a necessity without taking away from their programs.

I also did research on the Santa Monica Salad Bar Program and used it as a precedent while developing our school lunch program. All of these local organizations and precedent programs work together with our mission to create an all emcompassing nutritional education hot spot. 

World Food Issues: Let's Veg Out

VEGETARIANISM AND WORLD HUNGER

 

This report focuses on the benefits of being a vegetarian and how it could in turn help the status of hungry, malnourished people, and positively impact the entire world.

People become vegetarians for a variety of reasons. Some people are protesting the harsh treatment of animals, some people want to help the environment, and some people are focused on the health benefits. Despite all ethical arguments, being a vegetarian and eating a more plant-based diet is better for your health. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are beneficial for all stages of the life cycle (Leitzmann, 2005). This means people in all stages of life; including children, mothers, and the elderly can live healthy, nutritious lives from a well-balanced vegetarian diet in any location or lifestyle. The idea of the “Western Diet” focused heavily on meats, saturated fats, and processed foods leads to diseases like cancer, high cholesterol, and diabetes and needs to be stopped. It sets a bad example for the rest of the world and can easily be combated by consuming a more plant-based, nutritious diet. Vegetarian diets also combat diseases like cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis (Leitzmann, 2005).

These health benefits can also be used to alleviate malnutrition on developing countries (Seidle, 2000). It has been shown that consuming meat is an inefficient way to obtain calories compared to the direct consumption of grains that are put into the process of meat production (Seidle, 2000). Developing countries would benefit an incredible amount if the land they were using to produce grains used for meat production were instead used to feed their hungry people. Their health would benefit and their hunger rates would decrease.

A large majority of the grain produced in developing countries goes towards producing livestock for consumption in wealthy nations. This cattle production is harming our environment and increasing carbon emissions contributing to global warming and the decline of our planet. For example, there are approximately 1.28 billion cattle on the earth that consume enough grain to feed hundreds of millions of people in developing nations (Lewis, 1994). People in developing nations suffering from malnutrition and no food security could live healthier and happier lives if they stopped exporting all of their grain to wealthier nations and cattle production. Livestock occupies almost 24% of the earth’s landmass and they are destroying our ecosystems (Lewis, 1994). Rain forests are being cut down and destroyed to make room for livestock production; healthy cropland and natural environments all over the world are being destroyed to create land for cattle to graze (Lewis, 1994).  The depletion of all of our natural ecosystems and healthy land is in turn killing animals and driving species into extinction. Water sources are also being depleted in order to irrigate crops to feed all of these cattle, and the cattle production itself is polluting water supplies and emitting harmful carbon emissions. All of this cattle, and graze land for the cattle, is horrible for our environment, for our health, and it needs to stop.

It is morally wrong to put all of these resources towards livestock production when it leaves our planet in distress and forces our planets impoverished people into hungry, unhealthy lifestyles.

The utilitarianism theory states that we need to do what’s best for the greatest amount of people, and that is not what we are doing. All of the money and work put towards livestock production harms the environment and leaves millions of people hungry and malnourished. These people are forced to suffer when the food they are producing for cattle could easily feed them. People have the right to food and possibilities and livestock production takes that away. Wealthy nations are exploiting developing nations in order to benefit their wants for meat when it would be healthier for them to eat less meat anyway. The categorical imperative states that people should not be treated as means to an end and exploitation is wrong, and that is all prevalent in livestock production. Overall, we need to put our resources to feeling people, not cows.

As previously stated, a large portion of the food and grain produced in developing nations is being exported for livestock production, instead of being used to feed the hungry and benefit the impoverished people in developing countries that are actually producing the food and in desperate need of nutrition and food security. Another place this precious grain is being exported to is biofuels. The rapid increase in demand for biofuels, like ethanol that comes from maize and sugarcane, has created an increase in demand for these crops to be produced and has caused prices to rise on all grains (Rosegrant, 2008). All of these crops and resources are going towards biofuel production and the benefits don’t outweigh the negatives. Even though it is supposedly a green alternative to fossil fuels, it still requires fossil fuels in production and transportation of grains and still contributes to millions of people going hungry.  The environment is still suffering.

Across the globe, meat is seen as a delicacy that only the wealthy can afford. This point of view is actually harming our entire population. Wealthy people eat meat even though a vegetarian, plant-based diet would be better for their health, because their economic standing can afford it. People in wealthy nations have easy access to meat and animal byproducts and are therefore more commonly unhealthy.

This perspective on meat being a delicacy and reserved for wealthy people actually harms people in poverty as well. As soon as people in developing countries get access to more money or slightly increase their economic standing, they spend their money on meat and change their diets to the unhealthy, western alternative. These people are usually uneducated on the negative health effects of meat heavy diets and processed foods and are then forced to suffer health problems and diseases like diabetes. I think people in wealthy nations should live healthier, vegetarian lives and set good examples for the rest of the world. Just because you have money doesn’t mean you should spend it on unhealthy, expensive food choices that are harming the world. People should practice beneficence and do good things for the world and help others so everyone has a chance at food fairness and happy, nutritious lives.

In conclusion, vegetarianism is better for personal health, the health of the environment, and will help combat world hunger. Eating meat leads to and unhealthy lifestyle and contributes to diseases. Switching to a well balanced, vegetarian diet lessens the likelihood of those diseases without limiting vitamins or nutrients. It’s easier to obtain good caloric intake and nutrients from the grain that feeds the cattle than by consuming the cattle itself. It is also easier to feed the millions of people in developing nations that are food insecure and malnourished by using the grain the grain produced for livestock production and biofuels to instead feed them. There is enough food in the world to feed the Earth’s population, we just have to distribute it correctly and put it towards the correct things. The obscene amount of land that has been converted from rain forests and other healthy ecosystems to open grazing land for livestock is harming our environment and contributing to species extinction and land degradation. We need to stop eating meat to save our selves, help our planet, and feed the hungry.

 

 

Works Cited

Leitzmann, Claus. "Vegetarian Diets: What Are the Advantages?" Forum of Nutrition Diet Diversification and Health Promotion (2005): 147-56.

Lewis, Stephen. "An Opinion on the Global Impact of Meat Consumption." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59.5 (1994): n. pag. ProQuest. Web. 03 Nov. 2015. <http://search.proquest.com/openview/20a1df93c98191e728eeeae39d619aa9/1?pq-origsite=gscholar>.

Rosegrant, Mark W. "Biofuels and Grain Prices: Impacts and Policy Responses." International Food Policy Research Institute(2008): 1-2. <http://www.grid.unep.ch/FP2011/step1/pdf/004_Rosegrant_2008.pdf>.

Seidl, Andrew. "Economic Issues and the Diet and the Distribution of Environmental Impact." Ecological Economics 34.1 (2000): 5-8.

 

World Food Issues: Nutritional Case Study

International Nutrition: Obesity in Developing Countries

 

            The case study I’m focusing on about obesity and diseases in developing countries due to poor nutrition with a focus of South Asia (Anoop, Bhardwaj 2013). As economic standards shift and conditions improve in developing countries, their nutritional health does not always improve with it. Factors like urbanization, reduced physical activity, and the overall nutritional transition are negatively impacting the health of people in developing countries (Anoop, Bhardwaj 2013). The study focuses on the people of South Asia and highlights how their low health budgets and low nutritional awareness is leading to the degradation of their health and altering their entire way of life (Anoop, Bhardwaj 2013). The overall poor health and high susceptibility for disease in developing nations has a multitude of causes and impacts including poor nutritional conditions for infants in the lactation process, children’s vulnerability to nutritional problems, and food insecure peoples increased accessibility to processed foods.

            Breast-feeding is crucial in the lives of infants. Breast-feeding improves the health of babies, helps them fight infections, and provides them with a sanitary food supply. However, infants only receive these health benefits if they are breast fed for the appropriate amount of time from a healthy mother. Developing nations struggle with food security and adequate nutrition but this can be especially harmful to mothers and infants. The problem in these nations is improving the maternal diet to maintain a high level of lactation without depleting their protein levels (Gopalan, 1958). Undernutrition in infants increases their likelihood of dying before age 5 and will negatively impact the rest of their lives. Women and children are most vulnerable to negative nutritional impacts in health because of breast-feeding and other interactions (Anoop, Bhardwaj 2013). It has also been shown that perinatal undernutrition in children can make them more susceptible to metabolic syndrome and diabetes in adulthood. (Anoop, Bhardwaj 2013). Overall, the health infant health and nutrition is determined by length of breast-feeding and quality of maternal nutrition and can impact the child for the rest of their lives.

            Other nutritional issues facing children is stunting, growth, and overall nutritional deficiencies (Stromquist, 1998).  Children are the most influential demographic because their minds and bodies are quickly developing and growing. Children have high growth rates, small stomach capacities, and less developed immune systems that increase their susceptibility to illness and malnutrition (Stromquist, 1998).  Children also suffer from high rates of stunting due to inadequate food and poor health (Stromquist, 1998). This prevents them from growing and developing properly and makes them most influenced by health influxes and nutritional problems. I think on an ethical basis, that educational focus on health and nutrition must be focused towards children in developing nations. I think the beneficence theory supports this because we should be actively doing good things to help these children live healthier, happier lives. As these developing countries see an increase in their economic standings, they should be educated and helped with how to become healthy and stay healthy. It is only fair that everyone has access to the same benefits and nutritional knowledge. It is not right to see high rates of iron deficiency, protein energy malnutrition, iodine deficiency, and more in developing nations (Stromquist, 1998) when wealthy, food secure nations have the ability to help.

            Another way wealthy nations are negatively impacting developing nations is providing them with packaged foods and spreading their susceptibility to western diseases. As the food chain of developing countries shifts, so does their diet (Popkin, 2014). These food insecure countries have seen an increase in packages foods, processed food and drinks (Popkin, 2014). These unhealthy foods are becoming more easily accessible and they are also changing the drivers of the food system at an agricultural level and moving it in a negative, unhealthy direction (Popkin, 2014). These types of food and this lifestyle of eating is increasing their rates of obesity, increasing diseases, and overall depleting their health and nutrition levels (Anoop, Bhardwaj 2013). Western diets and diseases are reaching developing nations, however they do not have the budgets to help people with these diseases or educate people on disease prevention. Children suffer the most from these nutritional inadequacies and suffer with these diseases and issues the longest as they move into adulthood. I think the utilitarian theory should motivated wealthy nations to change the food system for the better and move to healthier diets in order to benefit the greater good. The diets and food availability created by wealthy, western cultures influences the rest of the word, especially developing countries. In order to improve the health of the world and allow everyone to have the right to health, we must all change to healthier diets and actively educate the world on healthy, nutritious lives.

            As economic conditions improve in developing countries they are exposed to a multitude of more issues involving health and nutrition. These societies have a long way to go before they are economically stable and entirely food secure, but they are still forced to deal with a changing food system and must deal with diseases like obesity and nutrient deficiencies. Education is key in helping these people and active lifestyles must be incorporated into healthy diets to improve the nutrition of children starting as infants and following them through the rest of their lives.

 

 

Works Cited

Gopalan, C. "Studies On Lactation In Poor Indian Communities." Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 4.3 (1958): 87-97. Web.

Misra, Anoop, and Swati Bhardwaj. "Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome in Developing Countries: Focus on South Asians." International Nutrition: Achieving Millennium Goals and Beyond Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series 78th Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop, Muscat, March 2013 (2014): 133-40. Web.

Popkin, Barry M. "Nutrition, Agriculture and the Global Food System in Low and Middle Income Countries." Food Policy 47 (2014): 91-96. Web.

Stromquist, Nelly P. Women in the Third World: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary Issues. New York: Garland Pub., 1998. Print.

 

Las Vegas Site Analysis: WHY?

Why must we consider existing schools, parking, entertainment, and grocery stores when designing our site? How will they influence our process and what do they include?

These posters quickly describe why we consider these factors in our site analysis and what matters to our project.

Food Rules: An Eater's Manual

Food Rules: An Eater’s Manual is a book written by Michael Pollan, designed to make an average persons relationship to food simpler and healthier.

 

Michael Pollan is a journalist attempting to answer the questions everyone asks himself or herself: What do I eat? And what do I need to know about my diet and health? He thinks of nutritional science as a very “young science” with plenty of room to grow and attempts to answer our questions in an easy to understand fashion.

 

After researching nutrition for years in order to write previous book, In Defense of Food, he decided to focus on the simple conclusion of all his research...

 

Eat Food. Not too Much. Mostly Plants.

 

His last book, full of nutritional research taught him that information and this book breaks down the theory, history, and science and relates it to our everyday lives. He condensed his years of knowledge to make all of us healthier. He began by splitting the main issues of health into two solid, overarching facts:

 

            FACT ONE: People who eat the Western diet of processed foods, meats, added fat and sugar, and refined grain, with very few vegetables, fruits, and whole grains suffer from high rates of Western diseases. These diseases are obesity, Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. This diet as a whole is the problem, not something specific in it.

 

            FACT TWO: People who eat from a wide range of traditional diets don’t suffer from those diseases. There is no single ideal human diet, the idea is to be a human omnivore and adapt to a wide range of different foods and different diets.

 

These facts are the base of his rules and the main issues he is targeting with his simple, day-to-day changes.

 

Pollan states that the best rules and ideas were passed down in the form of food habits, combinations, manners, rules, taboos, and everyday seasonal practices. Organized the rules into 64 rules designed to be guidelines to help making everyday healthy decisions easier and easier over time. Each section deals with a different dimension of a persons eating life, and they are all important to incorporate into everyday life. Written as a “choral voice of popular food wisdom.”

 

I read this book with the central focus of connecting it to our projects and incorporating them into our food hub programs, and I discovered that all of this knowledge could easily be incorporated into educational programs for the community, especially for children. These rules could also work as guidelines for food vendors when they are selecting food to sell. Overall, it is just great information to know and will be very useful in everyday life.